Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer.

A linear bus topology is a network topology consisting of a main run of cable with a terminator at each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable. Ethernet and LocalTalk networks use a linear bus topology.

Advantages of a linear bus topology

Disadvantages of a linear bus topology

·                     Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
  • Requires less cable length than a star topology.
  • Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
  • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
  • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
  • Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.

Star networks
-          one of the most common computer network topologies.
-          In its simplest form, a star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit to transmit messages.
-          This consists of a central node, to which all other nodes are connected; this central node provides a common connection point for all nodes through a hub.
-          An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems.
-          The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of the systems to a central node.
-          It is also designed with each node (file servers, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator.
-          Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before continuing to its destination.
-          The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network.
-           It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.
-          This configuration is common with twisted pair cable. However, it can also be used with coaxial cable or optical fibre cable.



  • Better performance: star topology prevents the passing of data packets through an excessive number of nodes. At most, 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any communication between any two devices. Although this topology places a huge overhead on the central hub, with adequate capacity, the hub can handle very high utilization by one device without affecting others.
  • Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to the hub. This makes the isolation of individual devices straightforward and amounts to disconnecting each device from the others. This isolation also prevents any non-centralized failure from affecting the network.
  • Benefits from centralization: As the central hub is the bottleneck, increasing its capacity, or connecting additional devices to it, increases the size of the network very easily. Centralization also allows the inspection of traffic through the network. This facilitates analysis of the traffic and detection of suspicious behaviour
  • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
  • No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
  • High dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub
  • Failure of the central hub renders the network inoperable


-          Tree topology is a combination of Bus and Star topology.

Point-to-point wiring
for individual

Overall length of each segment is
limited by the type of cabling
If the backbone line breaks, the
entire segment goes down
More difficult to configure and
wire than other topologies.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
normally implemented over fiber optic (fast-
Ethernet, UTP)
dual redundancy built in by use of primary
and secondary ring
automatic bypassing and isolation of faulty

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Ethereal Network Protocol Analyzer
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"Internet Core Protocols - The Definitive Guide"
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Network architecture  is  the design of a communications network. It is a framework for the specification of a network's physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its operational principles and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation.

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